What is argumentation? What does it mean when we say that we “justify claims” in argumentation?

What is argumentation? What does it mean when we say that we “justify claims” in argumentation?

1. What is argumentation? What does it mean when we say that we “justify claims” in argumentation? What does that imply for deciding whether that standard is met? Who determines the success/failure of argumentation? (35 points)

An argument is the claims people make, the evidence they offer to support them, and the decisions these arguments uphold, criticize .

2. What is a proposition (claim)? Identify and briefly describe the types of propositions (claims) that we covered. Why does it matter to classify claims according to type? (35 points)

3. What is a warrant by analogy? In your answer, please explain two common types of analogies, and identify the appropriate tests to assess the soundness of arguments by analogy. (35 points)

4. For the following excerpt, identify the warrant structure that supports the argument (analogy, cause, example, sign, essential nature, value, etc.). Explain the warrant structure and assess the strength of the argument according to the relevant tests. Is the argument strong or weak? What types of evidence would improve or challenge the argument? (35 points)

Heavy rainfall last September resulted in eight million gallons of raw sewage being spilled into the Red River from the Grand Hills sewage treatment facility. Doctors in Grand Hills report that, since the spill, they have seen a sharp increase in giardia – a bacterial infection that causes intestinal distress. Many doctors have suggested that new cases of the disease have resulted from people swimming in the contaminated river.

5. For the following excerpt, identify the warrant structure that supports the argument (analogy, cause, example, sign, essential nature, value, etc.). Explain the warrant structure and assess the strength of the argument according to the relevant tests. Is the argument strong or weak? What types of evidence would improve or challenge the argument? (35 points)

Vietnam taught us that we should not get involved in war that puts us in the role of foreign invaders facing local insurgents. An American military presence in Iran would put us in exactly this position again. Hence, we should not respond to calls to send troops to Iran to stop its nuclear program.

6. For the following excerpt, identify the warrant structure that supports the argument (analogy, cause, example, sign, essential nature, value, etc.). Explain the warrant structure and assess the strength of the argument according to the relevant tests. Is the argument strong or weak? What types of evidence would improve or challenge the argument?

Answer preview What is argumentation? What does it mean when we say that we “justify claims” in argumentation?

What is argumentation? What does it mean when we say that we “justify claims” in argumentation?

APA

1169 words

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