I need responses to my classmates writings with agreeing or disagreeing. there are 3 responses needed. each has to be separate from the others. a min of 200 words per response with 1 reference. 

Response 1manuel v

Mandatory spending ismostly spent to support the needs of social security programs, Medicare andothers. I do not think it is necessary to cut any programs, but perhaps itwould be better to slightly reduce the spending in the military sphere. In myopinion, it is necessary to expand the programs that would help to change thefact that “the elderly and the middle class receive the most benefits fromthe government’s social policies, and children and the poor receive thefewest” (Ginsberg et al., 2021, p. 1147). I would like to highlight that Iam not against helping the elderly and the middle class, but children and thepoor are much more vulnerable than other groups and, in addition, they couldcontribute more to the general well-being of the country if they got proper andtimely help. For example, I believe it is necessary to expand Federal StudentFinancial Aid to include younger age categories. It would simultaneously helpboth children and the poor.

If the US has the means of helping foreign countries experiencing acrisis, it is a must to do it. The planet is not a place for competing players,but the home to all people. Therefore, helping other nations is a way ofimproving the mutual home of the whole humanity. In addition, it is importantto take into account that this help is a powerful diplomatic tool. Ginsberg etal. (2021) suggest that the US has the following means to carry out the foreignpolicy – “diplomacy, the United Nations, the international monetarystructure, economic aid and sanctions, collective security, military force,soft power, and arbitration” (p. 1212). Such operations as the one inEthiopia or Japan are a form of economic aid, they use US military force andincrease the country’s soft power in the regions. In other words, they do notonly help people in need, but they make a great contribution in the power ofAmerica as an international agent.


Ginsberg, B., Lowi, T. J., Weir, M., Tolbert, C. J., Campbell, A. L.,& Spitzer, R. J. (2021). We the people:An introduction to American politics. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.


Response 2 whitney c

The federal budget consists of mandatory and discretionaryprograms. Programs such as social security, healthcare, interests, and nationaldefense are uncontrollable or entitlement programs that are not subject tobudgets cuts. Mandatory spending plays an important role in the economicstability of the country. For instance, it determines fiscal trends, such asincome distribution, taxation, personal spending, exchange rates, and budgetdeficits (de Rugy & Salmon, 2019). Also, mandatory spending on constituentslike unemployment insurance and income security income is critical inpreventing the worse-scenario cases during a recession like the 2008-2009depression. The 40% of the budget consists of discretionary spending, whichincludes foreign aid, education, homeland security, ad transportation. Thediscretionary components are subject to cut. For instance, foreign aid andnational defense can be reduced by a certain percentage to help in reducingdeficits. Since th government spending is higher than government revenues,there should be no expansion of programs to improve budget deficits.

The United States should be active in crisis management ratherthan living in humitarian organizations agencies to handle. One of the mainreasons of the main reason why the U.S. should help offer the other nationsinvolved is to uphold the political culture of alleviating suffering and theless fortunate in the society (Lawson & Morgenstern, 2020). Also, certainnatural disasters like earthquakes, hurricanes, and others threaten a mass lossof lives and require huge funding, which organizations like Red Cross may notbe able to manage. The aim is to provide emergency aid that saves livesregardless of the identity of the victims. (WC: 265)


de Rugy, V., & Salmon, J. (2019). The End of Policymaking andthe Rise of Mandatory Spending: A Fiscal Dilemma. Available at SSRN3690545.

Lawson, M. L., & Morgenstern, E. M. (2020). ForeignAssistance: An Introduction to US Programs and Policy. CongressionalResearch Service Report40213.


Response 3 erika m

Defense, education, andtransportation programs are funded through mandatory funding (Phaup, 2019).Mandatory spending supports economic goals such as controlling the inflationrate ensuring full employment, and economic growth measured by gross domestic product.In most nations inflation rate is not more than 3% (de Rugy, 2019). Failure tocontrol inflation is detrimental to economic recovery. Mandatory governmentspending creates aggregate demand, increasing the real GDP. The programs thatshould be cut to reduce compulsory spending include supplemental nutritionassistance and military retirement benefits. Such programs are not critical tothe economic progress of the country. Without good public health and securityservices, it will be hard to improve the country’s economy; hence thegovernment should capitalize on programs that will enhance the status of healthsecurity. Agencies concerned with detection and response to infectious diseasesshould be expanded, for example, the CDC and the CDC. Center for DiseaseControl (CDC), National Security Agency, and US Homeland security should bedeveloped by more mandatory funds allocated to them.

The US assists other countriesundergoing crisis more than any other county. It is the US obligation to do asit is the world’s wealthiest nation. It is appropriate for a rich country toassist emerging countries. Economic fates are closely tied to the economicfortunes of persons in other nations, implying that the US economy impactsother countries, mainly the developing ones (O’Hare, 2017). Assisting other countries benefits the US interms of economic prosperity and security. US safety is increased as theassistance stabilizes the countries under crisis. US economy is improved bycreating trade partners and markets for goods produced in the US (O’Hare, 2017). It is much easier for the US to strengthen relationships withthe country it has assisted.



de Rugy, V.,& Salmon, J. (2019). The End of Policymaking and the Rise of MandatorySpending: A Fiscal Dilemma. Available atSSRN 3690545.

O’Hare, J.(2017, June 13). The history of US foreign aid and why it’s as important aseverGlobal Citizen. https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/united-states-foreign-aid-history-trump/

Phaup, M.(2019). Budgeting for mandatory spending: Prologue to reform. Public Budgeting & Finance39(1), 24-44.