The evalution of carbon emissions from different transportation methods in Abuja, Nigeria.

Your research proposal will consist of 4 Chapters: Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, and Findings and a Reference section.


To complete the Geography Research Proposal successfully, follow these steps:

• Select your research topic and post it in the Discussion: Research Topic Selection found in Module 2: Week 2. Follow the instructions provided for you within the Discussion.

• Once your professor has approved your topic, begin collecting materials to develop your final research proposal due in Module 7: Week 7.

• For the proposal, you will include 4 Chapters and a Reference section. These elements will be completed in 2 stages. The final stage will include all the elements.

o Stage 1: Chapter 1 – Introduction and Chapter 2 – Literature Review

 This will be due in Module 5: Week 5.

 After receiving feedback from your professor, you will incorporate revisions to submit final versions of Chapters 1 and 2 with the remaining chapters in Module 7: Week 7.

o Stage 2: All Chapters and Reference Section

 This will be due in Module 7: Week 7.

 You will include a revised version of Chapters 1 and 2, as well as Chapters 3 and 4 and your Reference section in this final submission.

• Follow the detailed instructions found in Format and Language Requirements regarding the formatting of your proposal.


Chapters and Reference Section Requirements:


Chapter 1 – Introduction:

Your introduction will consist of the following components: Introduction Paragraph, Background of the Problem, Rationale for the Research, Theoretical/Conceptual Model, Limitations and Delimitations of the Study, and Research Assumptions:

Introduction Paragraph:

Whenever one writes an essay or report, it is important to introduce the audience to the subject, topic, or issue being discussed. In the same way, a researcher must introduce the audience to the issue under study in a professional and scholarly way.

• Write a paragraph introducing the research topic; it should be 1 page maximum in length.

• This can include definition of basic term(s) and basic or fundamental knowledge about the topic.

• Sources may be cited here if necessary.

Background of the Problem:

• Using 1 page maximum, describe how the issue, problem, opportunity, or challenge you are studying has emerged to become such.

• Discuss the nature of the particular problem, issue, or challenge from a geographic perspective and how the issue, problem, or challenge has changed overtime, as well as how approach to and impact of that problem, challenge, or issue has also changed over time.

Rationale for the Research:

• Using 1 paragraph, explain why the research is being conducted.

• Consider its value and importance of the research to the field of geography as well as to its stakeholders, whether individuals, community, or decisionmakers and planners.

• Will the study contribute to understanding a particular problem or issue, or to development of a solution for that problem or issue?

• What about the field of Geography; does it make a scholarly contribution?

Theoretical/Conceptual Model:

Models or theoretical/conceptual frameworks explain a phenomenon insofar as we know or as research has proven.

• Using 1 page maximum, discuss any theoretical framework or model underpinning the research or study of the selected issue, problem, or challenge.

• Explain what model or framework or theory underpins the assumptions and ideas of the research.

o For example, in studying earthquake forerunners or seismographic and geological changes before earthquakes, one could be basing their study on either the U.S.-based model, known as the Dilatancy Diffusion Model which explains that an earthquake occurs near maximum stress, following a period of dilatant crack expansion; or on the Soviet-based as the Dry Model, which states that an earthquake is occurs during a period of falling stress and recovery of velocity stemming from crack closure as stress relaxes.

o Whichever model is chosen in this case would become the major basis for the assumptions and methods used in the research, the research’s assumptions, and would even affect the method and design to some extent.

Limitations and Delimitations of the Study:

The limitations of a study are the influences outside the researcher’s control. For example, the restrictions placed on the research stemming from problems such as access. Delimitations are boundaries or limits that the research sets for the research; a research is designed in such a way that its focus maybe on specific aspects of a thing, on a certain region, place, or object and not others. A research may be limited to a time, place, location, etc.

• Using numbers, list the limitations and delimitations of the study.

Research Assumptions:

Assumptions are the plausible ideas generated from theories, conceptual frameworks or facts.

• Using numbers, state several assumptions of the research related to the topic, issue, problem, or phenomenon being researched or studied.


Chapter 2: Literature Review (Review of Literature):

The review of literature for any research explores the topic, issue, problem, or challenge as it has been treated or studied by previous and current studies, including existing models, theories, findings, and explanation. In other words, findings from primary and secondary sources including books, peer-reviewed journal articles, reports, and other sources on the topic are explored and summarized in a way that supports the rationale for the research in a succinct and chronological manner. To create your literature review, follow these steps:

• Collect 15 peer-reviewed journal articles for your research.

• In addition to the 15 peer-reviewed journal articles, you may use other sources, including books and websites that are relevant to your research.

• Include the APA citation of each journal article (and other resources selected).

• Under the APA citation of each article, provide a summary of the ways this resource supports your research topic

• This should be a minimum of 3 pages.


Chapter 3 – Methodology:

For this chapter, you will specify whether you are using qualitative or quantitative research methods or a mixed research method (combining qualitative and quantitative method). You will also describe the method by defining, identifying, and explaining the specifics regarding:

• Research Design: Using 1 paragraph, define and explain what specific qualitative, quantitative, or mixed research design will be applied, and how and why this is the most ideal or suitable research design.

• Sample or Population: In 1 paragraph, explain the sample or population to be studied (object or thing) and its nature and characteristics that lend itself to the research method and design chosen.

• Data Collection Procedures: Describe the type of data to be collected and the procedures or methods that will be used to collect the data for analysis. This should be 1 paragraph.

• Data Analysis: Using 1 paragraph, briefly describe how the data collected will be analyzed, whether using statistical analysis, inferential analysis, or other methods such as content analysis, or narrative analysis, etc.

• Research Questions or Hypothesis(es): Using numbers, list 2-3 research questions or hypothesis(es) to be explored or tested in the research.


Chapter 4 – Findings: Representation and Analysis:

Since this is a proposal for research, you will not actually conduct the research. Thus, the methods of representation and analysis are what you are proposing, by describing and explaining how these will be applied. You will not be able to explore findings since this is a proposal, but you will determine what methods of representation and analysis are best suited to your research.

• Using a maximum of 2 pages, discuss the method of representation and analysis to be applied in this research paper consistent with those discussed in Chapter 18-22 of the course textbook.

• Recognize that you cannot possibly apply all these methods of representation and analysis and must therefore, choose according to the geographic issue or topic you are researching.

• Limit your research to 2-3 methods of representation and analysis.

• Choose from “Maps and Diagrams” (Chapter 16), “Descriptive Statistics” (Chapter 17), “Explanatory Statistics” (Chapter 18), “Mathematical Analysis” (Chapter 19), “Regional Analysis” (Chapter 20), “Modeling” (Chapter 21), and/or “Geographic Information Systems” (Chapter 22).




• As noted in the Chapter 2: Literature Review section, you must have a minimum of 15 cited sources that are peer-reviewed journals in the field of geography and related disciplines that speak on the subject of study presented in the Geography Research Proposal.

• In addition to the minimum of 15 peer-reviewed journal articles for this research, you may use other sources including books and websites in addition to these.

• For the References section, you must list all the resources used, following the APA format in every aspect.


Format and Language Requirements:


Format Requirements:

The Geography Research Proposal must have appropriate

• Cover/Title page consistent with the APA format and the University/Department requirements for Title/Cover Page of assignments.

• Each chapter must be in APA format, double-spaced, in Times New Roman 12-point font, 1-inch margin on all sides of pages, and page number in upper right corner of pages.

• Your headings and subheadings must be in bold font, and your References in APA format, must begin on a separate page.


Language requirements: You should use only use third person in writing the Geography Research Proposal. Thus, rather than stating “I,” you should address yourself as “the researcher.”


Page length requirements: The Geographic Research Proposal must be between 7 and 12 pages. No less than 7 pages, including the Title and References pages. This means a minimum of 7 pages.


The evalution of carbon emissions from different transportation methods in Abuja, Nigeria is the topic for this research proposal.